Speakers – Hybrid Audio Technologies

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Scott Buwalda's inspiration for Hybrid Audio Technologies sprouted as friends sat in a coffee shop in Louisville, Kentucky. At one point the question was posed ‘why don’t you (Scott) build the ultimate car audio speaker line and start your own company?’ So he did. And here we are today, producing products that are recognized around the world as the finest car audio speakers available, at any price.
In our short tenure, Hybrid Audio has amassed a long list of accolades from the media, dealers, enthusiasts and competitors using and enjoying our products. In addition to the hundreds of championships awarded Hybrid-equipped vehicles, the highest-scoring sound quality competition vehicle of all time, in any format, in any part of the world is Scott Buwalda's own personal show car, using out products and methodologies.
In short, our philosophy is to build an ecosystem and products that are new and exciting, that have no equal, and are surpassed only by our commitment to honest-to-goodness customer service and guaranteed lifetime value.

The term “Legatia” is well-known amongst car audiophiles, specialty dealers, and distributors around the world. The Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia namesake is consistently the winningest brand of speakers for over a decade in organized competition in the USA and abroad.

Legatia X celebrates the efficacy of the brand with a series of products that emphasize sound quality reproduction, offered in a variety of bespoke midbass and midrange options. To begin, you can choose between carbon fiber and paper cones, as well as the inclusion of a dust cap or extended phase plug pole piece. Likewise, the fine fabric diaphragm Legatia X tweeter comes in both brushed aluminum finish or black anodizing.

Legatia X products are sold in a la carte speaker pairs, with bespoke options, allowing the end-user to design a custom system of Legatia X products, or a combination of Legatia X products and other Hybrid Audio Technologies product offerings.

Legatia X series midranges and midbass utilize the same exact mounting topology as the Legatia products for immediate ‘drop-in’ upgrade potential.

Legatia X systems are the benchmark speakers systems from Hybrid Audio Technologies.

Grilles are available for Legatia X midrange / midbass drivers from the Legatia series.

The term “Legatia” is well-known amongst car audiophiles, specialty dealers, and distributors around the world. The Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia namesake is consistently the winningest brand of speakers for over a decade in organized competition in the USA and abroad.

Legatia X celebrates the efficacy of the brand with a series of products that emphasize sound quality reproduction, offered in a variety of bespoke midbass and midrange options. To begin, you can choose between carbon fiber and paper cones, as well as the inclusion of a dust cap or extended phase plug pole piece. Likewise, the fine fabric diaphragm Legatia X tweeter comes in both brushed aluminum finish or black anodizing.

Legatia X products are sold in a la carte speaker pairs, with bespoke options, allowing the end-user to design a custom system of Legatia X products, or a combination of Legatia X products and other Hybrid Audio Technologies product offerings.

Legatia X series midranges and midbass utilize the same exact mounting topology as the Legatia products for immediate ‘drop-in’ upgrade potential.

Legatia X systems are the benchmark speakers systems from Hybrid Audio Technologies.

Grilles are available for Legatia X midrange / midbass drivers from the Legatia series.



High Frequency

X1

The Legatia X1 is a 58mm (2.3-inch) O.D. “low resonance” wide-bandwidth tweeter driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a super high-end tweeter driver is required.

At the onset of the Legatia Pro-Series program, we wanted to be sure that the Pro-Series tweeter could be listened to for long listening sessions with no noticeable listener fatigue, and the X1 answered the call. The X1 is an advancement of the original Legatia L1 Pro R2 design.

Available in both brushed aluminum finish or black anodized.

X1 Quick Specs

  • 4 Ohm Impedence
  • 120 Watts Power Handling
  • 86 dB Sensitivity
  • 450 - 20k Hz Frequency Response
  • 23mm Mounting Depth

Midrange/Full-Range

x3

The Legatia X3 is a 93mm (3.7-inch) “small format” wide-bandwidth midrange/full-range driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or full-range driver is required.

At home in virtually any arrangement, the X3 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia X high-end small-format midrange offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Available with carbon fiber or paper cones, as well as the inclusion of a dust cap or extended phase plug pole piece.

Paper cone with extended phase plug pole piece shown.

X3-PP Quick Specs

  • 4 Ohm Impedence
  • 150 Watts Power Handling
  • 87 dB Sensitivity
  • 155 - 20k Hz Frequency Response
  • 43.5mm Mounting Depth

Midrange/Midbass

X6

The Legatia X6 is a 181mm (7.1-inch) wide-bandwidth midbass/midrange driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or dedicated midbass driver is required.

The Legatia X6 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration.

Available with carbon fiber or paper cones, as well as the inclusion of a dust cap or extended phase plug pole piece.

Paper cone with dust cap shown.

X6-P Quick Specs

  • 4 Ohm Impedence
  • 225 Watts Power Handling
  • 90 dB Sensitivity
  • 67 - 8.5k Hz Frequency Response
  • 73.6mm Mounting Depth

Legatia X Design Considerations

The Legatia X-series component speakers are electrodynamic drivers that are comprised of a diaphragm (cone, or in the case of the Legatia X1, a fine fabric diaphragm and ring) that is set in motion by a motor system that has both electrical and mechanical components.
The X-series midrange and midbass designs boast several key elements which enhance the driver’s performance between the Legatia SE-series speakers and the Legatia X-series speakers:
• Hand-matched close tolerance sets with certificate of authenticity and a print-out of individual speaker parameters;
• More authoritative upper-range frequency response ability (wider bandwidth operation), especially off-axis: six full octaves of information;
• Lower inductance;
• Slightly higher resonance frequencies across all models for more transparent and tonally accurate low to middle midrange playback ability;
• Higher thermal power handling by AES standard;
• Higher thermal power handling with suggested crossover;
• Lower moving mass for better transient response;
• Typically higher compliance of motor system;
• Shallower mounting depth than a comparable Legatia SE model;
• Use of proprietary frames with embossed Hybrid Audio Technologies “cross” logos on the inverse side of the mounting flange, to ensure that the Legatia X speakers are the genuine article, and not a forgery or copy;
• A decidedly bespoke approach to cone topology and dust cap/extended phase plug pole piece topology, where the end-user can decide between hybrid pressed paper diaphragms and carbon fiber diaphragms, as well as the use of dust caps or extended phase plug pole pieces in both the X3 midrange and the X6 midrange/midbass;
• Use of a proprietary “double S” fine fabric surround to radically improve linear excursion, restorative force, and damping of edge mode distortion;
• Significantly more open spider venting for improved thermal power handling and improved motor cooling;
• Inclusion of voice coil former venting holes, again instrumental in venting for improved thermal power handling and improved motor cooling;
• Inclusion of an enhanced single-dip phenolic spider for enhanced linear excursion, more than double of that of the Legatia SE midrange and midbass;
• Inclusion of nickel-plated, spring-loaded binding post terminals for enhanced connectivity, separated by a greater degree than the Legatia SE to ensure less accidental short-circuits, and loosening of the binding posts due to mechanical vehicle vibration;
• Inclusion of high-energy opposing double-stacked neodymium cup and motor for increased motor performance and smaller diameter motor;
• Inclusion of aluminum radiator for heat dissipation and increased thermal power handling;
• Inclusion of gold-tinted copper-plated aluminum extended phase plug pole piece;
• Inclusion of laser-etched back plate cap with Hybrid Audio Technologies logo and Legatia X nomenclature; and
• Inclusion of a golden oak collectable gift box.

Application of Thiele/Small Parameters to Legatia X Designs

Introduction

Acoustics pioneers Neville Thiele and Richard Small developed a way to predict speaker performance and frequency response. These parameters are known collectively as “Thiele/Small Parameters”, and are divided into physical characteristics and response parameters:

The Physical Characteristics of a speaker are:

Re: The D.C. resistance of the voice coil measured in Ohms.
Sd: The surface area of the speaker’s cone.
BL: The magnetic strength of the motor structure.
Mms: The total moving mass of the speaker including the small amount of air in front of and behind the cone.
Cms: The stiffness of the driver’s suspension.
Rms: The losses due to the suspension.

The Thiele/Small Response parameters are:

Re: The D.C. resistance of the voice coil measured in Ohms.
Sd: The surface area of the speaker.
Fs: The resonant frequency of the speaker.
Qes: The electrical “Q” of the speaker.
Qms: The mechanical “Q” of the speaker.
Qts: The total "Q" of the speaker.
Vas: The volume of air having the same acoustic compliance as the speaker’s suspension.

Enclosure Recommendations

The mechanical and electrical parameters of the Legatia X midrange and midbass drivers are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. In a typical vehicular installation, Hybrid Audio Technologies recommends that the Legatia X drivers be placed in an “infinitely large” enclosure, which is more notably known as “infinite baffle.” Small sealed enclosures are not needed to be constructed, nor are typically recommended in most circumstances for any of the Legatia X range of products (there are some minor exceptions, based upon application, intended use, power handling, and etc., please contact us for details). Hybrid Audio has also had great success incorporating the Legatia X midrange and midbass drivers in dipole configuration (detailed below), transmission lines, and in larger vented enclosures.

In a typical installation, Legatia X midrange and midbass products should be mounted with unrestricted access to airspace to ensure the speaker’s ability to effectively reproduce its wide frequency bandwidth. The reason why the speaker was designed in this way is highly empirical. When a speaker is mounted in a small closed box, it radiates as much energy forward of the cone as it does rearward of the cone. All speaker cones and dust caps (diaphragms) are a weak sound barrier at best, and the result of the high amount of energy being “pushed” into a small enclosure is the energy transmitting through to the outside of the cone (an additive phenomenon to the incidental wave). It is conjectured that this effect is most notable in the low hundreds of Hz region, where acoustical stuffing materials are ineffective and the internal dimensions are not small enough for the internal air volume to act as a pure compliance. Consequently, Hybrid Audio has designed this speaker to work well without an enclosure, and as such, should not be significantly prone to enclosure back-pressure and sound coloration when placed infinitely baffled. The “infinitely large” enclosure, per se, improves spectral response and power response variation between high and low frequencies. And in the case where an infinite baffle operation is difficult or impossible to achieve in your car’s environment, we highly suggest the use of acoustic resistors (aperiodic membranes or trade name Variovents®) in sealed enclosures to help dissipate the backwave energy. If you absolutely must use a sealed enclosure, we recommend that you contact us for details and assistance in targeting a sealed enclosure volume applicable for your intended purpose. In all cases, the use of loosely-packed fibrous damping materials, such as fiberglass, Dacron, or long-fiber wool will also significantly improve the final installation, no matter what type of baffle and enclosure configuration is chosen.

Dipole Applications
While infinite baffle or resistive sealed enclosures are highly recommended for this driver, you might find that in the rare instance that the Legatia X drivers can be placed in a completely open baffle, i.e. dipole. A word of caution: Legatia X drivers mounted in an open baffle have to move more air than a similar Legatia X driver mounted in a resistive sealed enclosure, or infinitely baffled, just simply for the fact that there’s a progressive acoustic short circuit between front and back waves below the speaker’s resonance frequency (Fs) in the open baffle configuration. Great care must be taken in this instance, because there is no acoustic compliance afforded in a dipole configuration, and the speaker will reach its mechanical limits much quicker (and will net increased distortion). However, in certain instances, a dipole-style midrange may work well in a vehicular installation, in that radiation from the rear of the baffle, having undergone enough phase shift as it comes around to the front, adds to the total sound at off-axis angles. Of great importance in the dipole midrange configuration is the setting up of crossovers and weighing the negative effects of distortion of elevated amplitude levels.

Legatia X Design Considerations

The Legatia X-series component speakers are electrodynamic drivers that are comprised of a diaphragm (cone, or in the case of the Legatia X1, a fine fabric diaphragm and ring) that is set in motion by a motor system that has both electrical and mechanical components.
The X-series midrange and midbass designs boast several key elements which enhance the driver’s performance between the Legatia SE-series speakers and the Legatia X-series speakers:
• Hand-matched close tolerance sets with certificate of authenticity and a print-out of individual speaker parameters;
• More authoritative upper-range frequency response ability (wider bandwidth operation), especially off-axis: six full octaves of information;
• Lower inductance;
• Slightly higher resonance frequencies across all models for more transparent and tonally accurate low to middle midrange playback ability;
• Higher thermal power handling by AES standard;
• Higher thermal power handling with suggested crossover;
• Lower moving mass for better transient response;
• Typically higher compliance of motor system;
• Shallower mounting depth than a comparable Legatia SE model;
• Use of proprietary frames with embossed Hybrid Audio Technologies “cross” logos;
• A decidedly bespoke approach to cone topology and dust cap/extended phase plug pole piece topology;
• Use of a proprietary “double S” fine fabric surround to radically improve linear excursion, restorative force, and damping of edge mode distortion;
• Significantly more open spider venting for improved thermal power handling and improved motor cooling;
• Inclusion of a golden oak collectable gift box.
Additional items are available when viewed on a larger tablet or desktop computer.

Legatia X1

Legatia X1-B

X1-Bv2
Legatia X1 Black Anodized

Legatia X1-S

x1-s
Legatia X1 Brushed Aluminum

X1 Tweeter Attributes

History
The Legatia X1’s topology is an enhanced “ring radiator” version of the successful low-resonance Legatia L1 Pro R2. The purpose of the L1 R2 topology was to build upon the success and efficacy of the Legatia L1 Pro, but to offer the driver in a radiator ring topology to further enhance on-axis and off-axis frequency response, increased bandwidth, and lower modal distortion. The Legatia X1 is the culmination of an inordinate amount of time and resources spent testing and refining this product to the exacting specifications of Hybrid Audio Technologies and our long heritage of quality speakers. We are certain that this product will provide class-leading performance — that simply cannot be beat by competing brands — if installed properly.
Diaphragm, Power Handling, and Wave Guide

With respect to the diaphragm, the X1 has a slightly heavier moving mass than the L1 Pro (without negatively affecting transient response), which in turn has afforded more damping character. Nominal and thermal power handling has also been improved over the original L1 Pro R2 transducer; the X1 tweeter has a very high-power handling with proper filtering, and the X1 diaphragm is much less susceptible to mechanical deformation than other designs, and yet yields a smooth response over the extent of its range. The diaphragm is protected by a large open-space perforated metal grille that can be removed, if desired.

The X1 has several unique features that ensure performance is superior to all other designs in this category. The ring radiator geometry is notorious for delivering a flat, extended response, but many radiator designs have suffered historically from poor off-axis response. The main X1 criteria was to have a ring radiator that could work exceptionally well in a car environment, with an end-user’s choice of either on- or off-axis operation with good polar response. The geometry of the wave guide was paramount to achieving this result and was the subject of a concerted effort by Hybrid Audio Technologies engineers. The wave guide is proprietary to Hybrid Audio Technologies and prevents phase cancellation for uniform frequency response and uniform polar radiation. The addition of the wave guide is also an improvement over a conventional dome tweeter design simply for the fact that the diaphragm is terminated not only at its edges, but also at the center of the diaphragm as well. This feature improves the damping of modal distortion and resonance. In concert with the wave guide is a treated fine cloth diaphragm to ensure smooth frequency response.

Tuned Chamber and Motor

The tuned chamber of the X1 the key to the ability of the driver to faithfully reproduce low-octave tones with low distortion, should the end-user desire this type of topology. The X1 has a polypropylene tuned and damped chamber at the rear of the motor assembly; the chamber helps to reduce backwave distortion and significantly lower the tweeter’s resonance frequency to allow it to be used to play tones in the vocal spectrum. The tuned chamber is a proprietary design to Hybrid Audio; reduced distortion, low-octave authority, and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The tuned chamber includes integrated push terminals, discussed later.

The motor assembly is conventional dynamic, with a high-grade Φ24.5 × 3.5 H NdFeB neodymium magnet structure to ensure a small footprint size and shallow depth. The result is the total profile of the motor as small as possible, enhancing acoustic performance, and aiding in mounting via small size and low weight. The X1 is one of the shallowest tuned chamber tweeters on the market, and is even shallower than the L1 Pro R2 and L1 Pro.

Body/Flange

The body and flange of the Legatia X1 is one-piece machined 6061 aircraft-grade aluminum (not poured or cast aluminum). The dense metal structure, lacking interstitial voids, helps reduce vibrations within the body of the tweeter to abate resonance, and ensure effective reproduction of extremely low music tones. The X1 is a shared dimensional design with the Legatia Pro and the Legatia Pro SE and Pro R2 for easy upgrade potential. If you already own the L1 Pro or L1 Pro SE/R2, the X1 will drop right into place.

A machined aluminum Φ47.5mm knurled attachment nut at the base of the tweeter provides optimized clamping strength to the mounting media.

The mounting flange, only 3mm larger than the Legatia L1V2 tweeter, provides a solid-aluminum mounting surface for the tweeter without the necessity of mounting cups or external hardware. The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard OEM tweeter mounting locations, as well as in custom locations, boasting a depth of just 23mm, 4.5mm shallower than the sibling L1 Pro R2 tweeter offering.

The X1 tweeter is available in two colors to ensure cosmetic integration with the vehicle’s surroundings: silver brushed aluminum, and anodized black (there is no cost difference between the two colors) with gold-tinted copper phase plug and radiator ring.

Terminals Cap and Spring-Loaded Terminals
The X1 includes an extruded polypropylene tuned chamber with integrated high-end nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals at the rear of the tweeter’s motor assembly. The spring-loaded terminals give the end-user flexibility in direct connection with large-gauge tinned wiring, without the need for crimp terminals.
Summary
The Legatia X1 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. The size of the device and its incredible off-axis ability are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. The size of the X1 allows it to be mounted in typical OEM and custom locations within a vehicle. At home in virtually any arrangement, the X1 boasts exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters


Overall Diameter
Mounting Depth
Mounting Methodology
Construction
Distortion
Magnet Diameter and Construction
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
Pmax (With Recommended X-over)
Resonance Frequency (Fs)
Frequency Range
Sensitivity
Impedance
DC Resistance
Voice Coil Diameter
Qms
Qes
Qts
Krm
Erm
Kxm
Exm
Legatia X1
Φ58 mm
23 mm
Surface-mount tweeter with standard-pitch M47.5 X 8mm thick knurled thread aluminum adapter to secure the tweeter body from the rear
Solid machined aluminum with integrated polypropylene rear cap and push terminals
<5% max at rated power input, no crossover
Φ24.5 × 3 H NdFeB
2,000 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
25 watts (AES Standard)
50 watts (AES Standard)
120 watts
450 Hz
450 Hz – 20,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
86 dB at 2.83V/1meter

3.0 Ω
25.5 mm (1-inch)
0.942
1.879
0.627
4.106 nΩ
0.997
23.836 mH
0.249
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings

Legatia X3

Legatia X3-P

X3-P
Legatia X3 Paper w/ dust cap

Legatia X3-C

X3-C
Legatia X3 Carbon w/ dust cap

X3-PP

X3-PP
Legatia X3 Paper w/ extended phase plug pole piece

Legatia X3-CP

X3-CP
Legatia X3 Carbon w/ extended phase plug pole piece

X3 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range Attributes

Overview
The Legatia X3 is a 93mm (3.7-inch) “small format” wide-bandwidth midrange/full-range driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or full-range driver is required. The following are the X3’s design attributes.
Basket
The basket of the Legatia X3 is complimentary in dimension to the Legatia L3SE, L3V2 and the original Legatia L3 for easy upgrade potential; the L3, L3V2, L3SE, and X3 are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a proprietarily-tooled high-quality cast aluminum design, and contains a 93mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four screw holes (the use of 3mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “3-inch” driver, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of just 43.5mm (1.71-inch), 0.5mm shallower than its Legatia X3 counterpart. The basket features larger openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the X3 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 6mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting in the X3 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the X3 includes an opposing double-stacked NdFeB magnet to improve restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet assemblies are fully surrounded by the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the X3 is a large 25mm (1-inch), which is the proper balance between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/full-range drivers. The voice coil diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation, as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The progressive “double-S” surround is fine fabric which is highly consistent, and terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone

The Legatia X3 is a cone-type driver consisting of a an optional proprietary hybrid paper or carbon fiber diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. Carbon fiber is widely acknowledged as a more “forward” and “lively” sound. The end-user can select which cone topology best suites the desired end-result.

The cone designs offer a wide dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia X3 has an outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (~140 Hz – 20,000 Hz). Even off-axis, the X3 faithfully recreates more than six full octaves of information, for the ultimate “small-format” midrange/full-range driver.

Phase Plug or Dust Cap and Shorting Cup

The X3 comes equipped with an end-user choice of phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone or dust cap.

The phase plug design topology features an aluminum pole piece and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the inductance reduction benefits noted. The phase plug is plated with matte gold, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, class-leading cosmetics. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the X3’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.

The dust cap design topology features an option for a carbon fiber cone / carbon fiber dust cap combination or a hybrid paper cone / hybrid paper dust cap combination. Generally speaking, the dust cap adds moving mass to the diaphragm (particularly in the carbon cone and dust cap topology), oftentimes lowering the resonance frequency of a similarly-equipped phase plug driver. The dust cap midrange drivers behave more like “traditional” drivers, where extended bandwidth may be partially sacrificed in favor of a more traditional driver topology in certain installations.

The X3 uses a copper shorting cup. The shorting cup consist of an optimally sized and placed copper (Cu) cup to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD).

Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the X3 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are stitched into the spider and bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which completely eliminates tinsel lead slap and does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia X3 comes equipped with heavy-duty nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals for both positive and negative, which is an enhancement over the L3V2 model. The terminals optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
Summary

Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum operation. The size of the X3 allows it to be mounted in typical “3-inch” midrange locations within a vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.

At home in virtually any arrangement, the X3 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia X high-end small-format midrange offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters




Overall Diameter
Mounting Depth
Bolt Circle Diameter
Mounting Hole
Recommended Minimum Crossover
Pnom Rated Power Input (No X-over)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No X-over)
Pmax (With Recommended X-over)
Frequency Range
Sensitivity
Mms
Cms
BL
Voice Coil Diameter
Impedance
DC Resistance
Fs
Qms
Qes
Qts
Xmax
Vas
Sd
Legatia X3-P
Paper Cone
Dust Cap
Φ93 mm (3.7-inch)
43.5 mm
Φ84.5 mm
Φ74 mm
185 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
30 watts (AES Standard)
60 watts (AES Standard)
150 watts
164 Hz – 20,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
85 dB at 2.83V/1meter
2.561 g
368.766 um/N
3.017 T*m
25 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.4 Ω
164 Hz (free air)
1.639
0.985
0.615
2 mm (one way)
0.508 L
3,117 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X3-C
Carbon Fiber Cone
Dust Cap
Φ93 mm (3.7-inch)
43.5 mm
Φ84.5 mm
Φ74 mm
185 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
30 watts (AES Standard)
60 watts (AES Standard)
150 watts
152 Hz – 20,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
84 dB at 2.83V/1meter
3.621 g
299.233 um/N
3.8 T*m
25 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.4 Ω
152 Hz (free air)
1.751
0.819
0.558
2 mm (one way)
0.413 L
3,117 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X3-PP
Paper Cone
Phase Plug
Φ93 mm (3.7-inch)
43.5 mm
Φ84.5 mm
Φ74 mm
185 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
30 watts (AES Standard)
60 watts (AES Standard)
150 watts
155 Hz – 20,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
87 dB at 2.83V/1meter
2.294 g
450.407 um/N
3.147 T*m
25 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.4 Ω
155 Hz (free air)
1.679
0.775
0.53
2 mm (one way)
0.621 L
3,117 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X3-CP
Carbon Fiber Cone
Phase Plug
Φ93 mm (3.7-inch)
43.5 mm
Φ84.5 mm
Φ74 mm
185 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
30 watts (AES Standard)
60 watts (AES Standard)
150 watts
155 Hz – 20,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
85 dB at 2.83V/1meter
3.345 g
314.694 um/N
3.764 T*m
25 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.4 Ω
155 Hz (free air)
1.821
0.783
0.547
2 mm (one way)
0.434 L
3,117 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings

Legatia X6

Legatia X6-P

X6-P
Legatia X6 Paper w/ dust cap

Legatia X6-C

X6-C
Legatia X6 Carbon w/ dust cap

X6-PP

X6-PP
Legatia X6 Paper w/ extended phase plug pole piece

Legatia X6-CP

X6-CP
Legatia X6 Carbon w/ extended phase plug pole piece

X6 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass Attributes

Overview
The Legatia X6 is a 181mm (7.1-inch) wide-bandwidth midbass/midrange driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or dedicated midbass driver is required. The following are the X6’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the X6 is complimentary in dimension to the Legatia L6SE, Legatia L6V2, and Legatia L6, for easy upgrade potential; the X6, L6SE, L6V2, and L6 are interchangeable in mounting topology, with the exception of screw hole diameter and number of screw holes (the X6 having a slightly different screw hole diameter and six mounting screws instead of four). The basket is a proprietarily-tooled high-quality cast aluminum design, and contains a 181mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via six screw holes (the use of 4mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “6-inch” driver, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of 73.6mm (2.89-inch), an improvement in depth of almost 0.18 inches over the similarly-equipped L6SE. The basket features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the X6 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 18mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting in the X6 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the X6 includes an opposing double-stacked NdFeB magnet to improve restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet assemblies are fully surrounded by the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the X6 is a large 35.55mm (1.4-inch), which is the proper balance between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/midbass. The voice coil diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation, as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The progressive “double-S” surround is fine fabric which is highly consistent, and terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone

The Legatia X6 is a cone-type driver consisting of a an optional proprietary hybrid paper or carbon fiber diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. Carbon fiber is widely acknowledged as a more “forward” and “lively” sound. The end-user can select which cone topology best suites the desired end-result.

The cone designs offer a wide dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia X6 has an outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (~70 Hz – ~10,000 Hz, depending on cone and phase plug/dust cap topology). Even off-axis, the X6 faithfully recreates more than six full octaves of information, for the ultimate “small-format” midrange/full-range driver.

Phase Plug or Dust Cap and Shorting Cup

The X6 comes equipped with an end-user choice of phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone or dust cap.

The phase plug design topology features an aluminum pole piece and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the inductance reduction benefits noted. The phase plug is plated with matte gold, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, class-leading cosmetics. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the X6’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.

The dust cap design topology features an option for a carbon fiber cone / carbon fiber dust cap combination or a hybrid paper cone / hybrid paper dust cap combination. Generally speaking, the dust cap adds moving mass to the diaphragm (particularly in the carbon cone and dust cap topology), oftentimes lowering the resonance frequency of a similarly-equipped phase plug driver. The dust cap midrange drivers behave more like “traditional” drivers, where extended bandwidth may be partially sacrificed in favor of a more traditional driver topology in certain installations.

The X6 uses a copper shorting cup. The shorting cup consist of an optimally sized and placed copper (Cu) cup to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD).

Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the X6 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are stitched into the spider and bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which completely eliminates tinsel lead slap and does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia X6 comes equipped with heavy-duty nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals for both positive and negative. The terminals optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
Summary

The Legatia X6 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum operation. The size of the X6 allows it to be mounted in typical “6-inch” midbass locations within a vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.

At home in virtually any arrangement, the X6 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia X high-end large-format midrange/midbass offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters




Overall Diameter
Mounting Depth
Bolt Circle Diameter
Mounting Hole
Recommended Minimum Crossover
Pnom Rated Power Input (No X-over)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No X-over)
Pmax (With Recommended X-over)
Frequency Range
Sensitivity
Mms
Cms
BL
Voice Coil Diameter
Impedance
DC Resistance
Fs
Qms
Qes
Qts
Xmax
Vas
Sd
Legatia X6-P
Paper Cone
Dust Cap
Φ181 mm (7.1-inch)
73.6 mm
Φ167.5 mm
Φ147.4 mm
60 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
85 watts (AES Standard)
170 watts (AES Standard)
225 watts
67 Hz – 8,500 Hz, +/- 3 dB
90 dB at 2.83V/1meter
8.969 g
626.647 um/N
4.1 T*m
35 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.2 Ω
67 Hz (free air)
3.315
0.81
0.651
4.25 mm (one way)
16.665 L
13,685 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X6-C
Carbon Fiber Cone
Dust Cap
Φ181 mm (7.1-inch)
73.6 mm
Φ167.5 mm
Φ147.4 mm
60 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
85 watts (AES Standard)
170 watts (AES Standard)
225 watts
80 Hz – 8,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
89 dB at 2.83V/1meter
8.69 g
419.42 um/N
3.647 T*m
35 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.2 Ω
80 Hz (free air)
2.604
1.232
0.836
4.25 mm (one way)
11.15 L
13,685 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X6-PP
Paper Cone
Phase Plug
Φ181 mm (7.1-inch)
73.6 mm
Φ167.5 mm
Φ147.4 mm
60 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
85 watts (AES Standard)
170 watts (AES Standard)
225 watts
75 Hz – 8,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
91.3 dB at 2.83V/1meter
7.293 g
606.78 um/N
3.946 T*m
35 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.2 Ω
75.6 Hz (free air)
3.322
0.802
0.646
4.25 mm (one way)
16.1361 L
13,685 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings
Legatia X6-CP
Carbon Fiber Cone
Phase Plug
Φ181 mm (7.1-inch)
73.6 mm
Φ167.5 mm
Φ147.4 mm
60 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
85 watts (AES Standard)
170 watts (AES Standard)
225 watts
83 Hz – 11,500 Hz, +/- 3 dB
89.5 dB at 2.83V/1meter
8.821 g
416.041 um/N
3.888 T*m
35 mm (1-inch)
4 Ω
3.2 Ω
83 Hz (free air)
2.794
1.097
0.788
4.25 mm (one way)
11.064 L
13,685 mm2
View Response Graph
View Mechanical Drawings

Legatia X1

Legatia X1-B

X1-Bv2
Legatia X1 Black Anodized

Legatia X1-S

x1-s
Legatia X1 Brushed Aluminum

X1 Tweeter Attributes

History
The Legatia X1’s topology is an enhanced “ring radiator” version of the successful low-resonance Legatia L1 Pro R2. The purpose of the L1 R2 topology was to build upon the success and efficacy of the Legatia L1 Pro, but to offer the driver in a radiator ring topology to further enhance on-axis and off-axis frequency response, increased bandwidth, and lower modal distortion. The Legatia X1 is the culmination of an inordinate amount of time and resources spent testing and refining this product to the exacting specifications of Hybrid Audio Technologies and our long heritage of quality speakers. We are certain that this product will provide class-leading performance — that simply cannot be beat by competing brands — if installed properly.
Diaphragm, Power Handling, and Wave Guide

With respect to the diaphragm, the X1 has a slightly heavier moving mass than the L1 Pro (without negatively affecting transient response), which in turn has afforded more damping character. Nominal and thermal power handling has also been improved over the original L1 Pro R2 transducer; the X1 tweeter has a very high-power handling with proper filtering, and the X1 diaphragm is much less susceptible to mechanical deformation than other designs, and yet yields a smooth response over the extent of its range. The diaphragm is protected by a large open-space perforated metal grille that can be removed, if desired.

The X1 has several unique features that ensure performance is superior to all other designs in this category. The ring radiator geometry is notorious for delivering a flat, extended response, but many radiator designs have suffered historically from poor off-axis response. The main X1 criteria was to have a ring radiator that could work exceptionally well in a car environment, with an end-user’s choice of either on- or off-axis operation with good polar response. The geometry of the wave guide was paramount to achieving this result and was the subject of a concerted effort by Hybrid Audio Technologies engineers. The wave guide is proprietary to Hybrid Audio Technologies and prevents phase cancellation for uniform frequency response and uniform polar radiation. The addition of the wave guide is also an improvement over a conventional dome tweeter design simply for the fact that the diaphragm is terminated not only at its edges, but also at the center of the diaphragm as well. This feature improves the damping of modal distortion and resonance. In concert with the wave guide is a treated fine cloth diaphragm to ensure smooth frequency response.

Tuned Chamber and Motor

The tuned chamber of the X1 the key to the ability of the driver to faithfully reproduce low-octave tones with low distortion, should the end-user desire this type of topology. The X1 has a polypropylene tuned and damped chamber at the rear of the motor assembly; the chamber helps to reduce backwave distortion and significantly lower the tweeter’s resonance frequency to allow it to be used to play tones in the vocal spectrum. The tuned chamber is a proprietary design to Hybrid Audio; reduced distortion, low-octave authority, and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The tuned chamber includes integrated push terminals, discussed later.

The motor assembly is conventional dynamic, with a high-grade Φ24.5 × 3.5 H NdFeB neodymium magnet structure to ensure a small footprint size and shallow depth. The result is the total profile of the motor as small as possible, enhancing acoustic performance, and aiding in mounting via small size and low weight. The X1 is one of the shallowest tuned chamber tweeters on the market, and is even shallower than the L1 Pro R2 and L1 Pro.

Body/Flange

The body and flange of the Legatia X1 is one-piece machined 6061 aircraft-grade aluminum (not poured or cast aluminum). The dense metal structure, lacking interstitial voids, helps reduce vibrations within the body of the tweeter to abate resonance, and ensure effective reproduction of extremely low music tones. The X1 is a shared dimensional design with the Legatia Pro and the Legatia Pro SE and Pro R2 for easy upgrade potential. If you already own the L1 Pro or L1 Pro SE/R2, the X1 will drop right into place.

A machined aluminum Φ47.5mm knurled attachment nut at the base of the tweeter provides optimized clamping strength to the mounting media.

The mounting flange, only 3mm larger than the Legatia L1V2 tweeter, provides a solid-aluminum mounting surface for the tweeter without the necessity of mounting cups or external hardware. The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard OEM tweeter mounting locations, as well as in custom locations, boasting a depth of just 23mm, 4.5mm shallower than the sibling L1 Pro R2 tweeter offering.

The X1 tweeter is available in two colors to ensure cosmetic integration with the vehicle’s surroundings: silver brushed aluminum, and anodized black (there is no cost difference between the two colors) with gold-tinted copper phase plug and radiator ring.

Terminals Cap and Spring-Loaded Terminals
The X1 includes an extruded polypropylene tuned chamber with integrated high-end nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals at the rear of the tweeter’s motor assembly. The spring-loaded terminals give the end-user flexibility in direct connection with large-gauge tinned wiring, without the need for crimp terminals.
Summary
The Legatia X1 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. The size of the device and its incredible off-axis ability are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. The size of the X1 allows it to be mounted in typical OEM and custom locations within a vehicle. At home in virtually any arrangement, the X1 boasts exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters are available when viewed on a larger tablet or desktop computer.


Legatia X3

Legatia X3-P

X3-P
Legatia X3 Paper w/ dust cap

Legatia X3-C

X3-C
Legatia X3 Carbon w/ dust cap

X3-PP

X3-PP
Legatia X3 Paper w/ extended phase plug pole piece

Legatia X3-CP

X3-CP
Legatia X3 Carbon w/ extended phase plug pole piece

X3 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range Attributes

Overview
The Legatia X3 is a 93mm (3.7-inch) “small format” wide-bandwidth midrange/full-range driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or full-range driver is required. The following are the X3’s design attributes.
Basket
The basket of the Legatia X3 is complimentary in dimension to the Legatia L3SE, L3V2 and the original Legatia L3 for easy upgrade potential; the L3, L3V2, L3SE, and X3 are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a proprietarily-tooled high-quality cast aluminum design, and contains a 93mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four screw holes (the use of 3mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “3-inch” driver, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of just 43.5mm (1.71-inch), 0.5mm shallower than its Legatia X3 counterpart. The basket features larger openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the X3 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 6mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting in the X3 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the X3 includes an opposing double-stacked NdFeB magnet to improve restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet assemblies are fully surrounded by the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the X3 is a large 25mm (1-inch), which is the proper balance between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/full-range drivers. The voice coil diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation, as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The progressive “double-S” surround is fine fabric which is highly consistent, and terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone

The Legatia X3 is a cone-type driver consisting of a an optional proprietary hybrid paper or carbon fiber diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. Carbon fiber is widely acknowledged as a more “forward” and “lively” sound. The end-user can select which cone topology best suites the desired end-result.

The cone designs offer a wide dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia X3 has an outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (~140 Hz – 20,000 Hz). Even off-axis, the X3 faithfully recreates more than six full octaves of information, for the ultimate “small-format” midrange/full-range driver.

Phase Plug or Dust Cap and Shorting Cup

The X3 comes equipped with an end-user choice of phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone or dust cap.

The phase plug design topology features an aluminum pole piece and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the inductance reduction benefits noted. The phase plug is plated with matte gold, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, class-leading cosmetics. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the X3’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.

The dust cap design topology features an option for a carbon fiber cone / carbon fiber dust cap combination or a hybrid paper cone / hybrid paper dust cap combination. Generally speaking, the dust cap adds moving mass to the diaphragm (particularly in the carbon cone and dust cap topology), oftentimes lowering the resonance frequency of a similarly-equipped phase plug driver. The dust cap midrange drivers behave more like “traditional” drivers, where extended bandwidth may be partially sacrificed in favor of a more traditional driver topology in certain installations.

The X3 uses a copper shorting cup. The shorting cup consist of an optimally sized and placed copper (Cu) cup to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD).

Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the X3 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are stitched into the spider and bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which completely eliminates tinsel lead slap and does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia X3 comes equipped with heavy-duty nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals for both positive and negative, which is an enhancement over the L3V2 model. The terminals optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
Summary

Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum operation. The size of the X3 allows it to be mounted in typical “3-inch” midrange locations within a vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.

At home in virtually any arrangement, the X3 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia X high-end small-format midrange offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters are available when viewed on a larger tablet or desktop computer.


Legatia X6

Legatia X6-P

X6-P
Legatia X6 Paper w/ dust cap

Legatia X6-C

X6-C
Legatia X6 Carbon w/ dust cap

X6-PP

X6-PP
Legatia X6 Paper w/ extended phase plug pole piece

Legatia X6-CP

X6-CP
Legatia X6 Carbon w/ extended phase plug pole piece

X6 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass Attributes

Overview
The Legatia X6 is a 181mm (7.1-inch) wide-bandwidth midbass/midrange driver to compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or dedicated midbass driver is required. The following are the X6’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the X6 is complimentary in dimension to the Legatia L6SE, Legatia L6V2, and Legatia L6, for easy upgrade potential; the X6, L6SE, L6V2, and L6 are interchangeable in mounting topology, with the exception of screw hole diameter and number of screw holes (the X6 having a slightly different screw hole diameter and six mounting screws instead of four). The basket is a proprietarily-tooled high-quality cast aluminum design, and contains a 181mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via six screw holes (the use of 4mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “6-inch” driver, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of 73.6mm (2.89-inch), an improvement in depth of almost 0.18 inches over the similarly-equipped L6SE. The basket features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the X6 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 18mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting in the X6 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the X6 includes an opposing double-stacked NdFeB magnet to improve restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet assemblies are fully surrounded by the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the X6 is a large 35.55mm (1.4-inch), which is the proper balance between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/midbass. The voice coil diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation, as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The progressive “double-S” surround is fine fabric which is highly consistent, and terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone

The Legatia X6 is a cone-type driver consisting of a an optional proprietary hybrid paper or carbon fiber diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. Carbon fiber is widely acknowledged as a more “forward” and “lively” sound. The end-user can select which cone topology best suites the desired end-result.

The cone designs offer a wide dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia X6 has an outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (~70 Hz – ~10,000 Hz, depending on cone and phase plug/dust cap topology). Even off-axis, the X6 faithfully recreates more than six full octaves of information, for the ultimate “small-format” midrange/full-range driver.

Phase Plug or Dust Cap and Shorting Cup

The X6 comes equipped with an end-user choice of phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone or dust cap.

The phase plug design topology features an aluminum pole piece and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the inductance reduction benefits noted. The phase plug is plated with matte gold, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, class-leading cosmetics. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the X6’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.

The dust cap design topology features an option for a carbon fiber cone / carbon fiber dust cap combination or a hybrid paper cone / hybrid paper dust cap combination. Generally speaking, the dust cap adds moving mass to the diaphragm (particularly in the carbon cone and dust cap topology), oftentimes lowering the resonance frequency of a similarly-equipped phase plug driver. The dust cap midrange drivers behave more like “traditional” drivers, where extended bandwidth may be partially sacrificed in favor of a more traditional driver topology in certain installations.

The X6 uses a copper shorting cup. The shorting cup consist of an optimally sized and placed copper (Cu) cup to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD).

Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the X6 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are stitched into the spider and bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which completely eliminates tinsel lead slap and does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia X6 comes equipped with heavy-duty nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals for both positive and negative. The terminals optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
Summary

The Legatia X6 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum operation. The size of the X6 allows it to be mounted in typical “6-inch” midbass locations within a vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.

At home in virtually any arrangement, the X6 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia X high-end large-format midrange/midbass offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.

Thiele/Small Parameters are available when viewed on a larger tablet or desktop computer.

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Advanced System Installation Considerations

Introduction

Hybrid Audio Technologies has prepared a more advanced topical discussion of Legatia X installation techniques, concepts, and principals, where a little bit of additional installation work can net immense gains in overall sound quality.

There are certainly many things you can do to improve your mobile audio system, such as addition of amplification, a dedicated subwoofer system, higher-gauge speaker wire, and higher-end passive crossovers, and active crossovers. All of these things require an additional amount of monetary investment into your audio system, and may not net the immediate gains that other, more elementary installation items can net. The following discussion is pertinent to easy and cost-effective enhancements you can do for your audio system, particularly as it relates to the installation of Legatia X component speakers.

In any mobile audio system, the weakest link will always be the speaker systems, followed closely by installation techniques (sometimes its vice-versa). Since the Legatia X component system you have purchased has solved the first issue, the second issue, that being installation techniques, can see a significant improvement as well by understanding and incorporating some or all of the techniques in the following sections.

Lessons Learned

We like to call this our “Lessons Learned” section, where we expose some critical lessons that we have learned through thousands upon thousands of hours of trial and error:

Lesson One: Off-Axis Response

When a speaker system like the Legatia X is placed in an automotive environment, we hear the direct (shortest path) and reflected (longer path) sounds, such as resonances and reverberations. The two sounds are processed by the brain as one sound, and this influences our perception of height, width, and depth of soundstage, as well as rearward ambience. For this reason, the off-axis radiation pattern of any speaker in a vehicular environment has a significant influence on how natural the music sounds.

The lesson to learn here is that most mobile audio sound systems benefit greatly from having the front stage speakers at least partially “off-axis.” Off-axis means that the speakers are not pointing at you, but rather at some angle less than 90 degrees away from you.

Lesson Two: Equalization of Pathlength Differences

Quite possibly the most important functional consideration that a do-it-yourself enthusiast or professional installer should give to the Legatia X speaker placement is to optimize, as best as possible, pathlength differences (PLD’s) in the vehicle. PLD’s are defined mathematically as follows (this example assumes a right-hand drive vehicle---PLD’s are always a positive number):

X – Y = Z

Where:

X = distance of the center of the left speaker from your left ear.
Y = distance of the center of the right speaker from your right ear.
Z = pathlength difference.

Applying this formula, assume that the distance of the left speaker from your left ear is 140cm, and the distance of the right speaker from your right ear is 100cm, the pathlength difference is 40cm.

Good stereo imaging is completely dependent on arrival times of the fundamental vocal frequencies. Differences as little as 10 microseconds can be detected by the brain. A PLD of 30 centimeters equates to the sound from the nearest channel arriving about 0.9 milliseconds earlier than the furthest channel. It is Hybrid Audio’s opinion that the end-user should try to keep PLD’s to less than 30 centimeters in a vehicle which is intended to have good imaging and staging character from both seated positions.

The best way to go about evaluating certain locations in your vehicle is, in general, to look for the potential locations as far forward and away from you as possible, but still with a general “line of sight” to the speakers (particularly the speaker on the far side of the vehicle). An easy way to test various potential locations is to hold a tape measure or other measurement device from the potential speaker mounting locations, and measure those locations with respect to your ears.

In scenario “a”, we show the installation of the Legatia X midbass in the dashboard, high in a door panel, or in the dashboard. As you can see from the diagram, the PLD’s between the left and right speakers are large, due to the proximity of the listener to the near-side speaker. While the mounting of primary drivers in the dashboard or a-pillars has become increasingly popular, this configuration will undoubtedly require both time and intensity domain equalization in most vehicles to ensure a good, focused center image, properly located in the center of the vehicle for one seated position. There are, however, some rare exceptions, and you may actually find that the dashboard locations provide the best equalized PLD of the available mounting locations; this is very rare though – in our experience, less than one percent of vehicles on the market today have optimized dashboard speaker locations for the midbass drivers.

In scenario “b”, a typical door installation location is shown, and in many vehicles represents a good improvement in PLD’s from the dashboard, high in the door panel, and a-pillar location identified in scenario “a.” The door speaker installation scenario is the one detailed in the basic installation section at the beginning of this manual, and in most vehicles represents a satisfactory location to mount speakers; not ideal but satisfactory. The door speaker installation scenario will likely also require some amount of time and intensity equalization to ensure a centered image in most vehicles; this can be as simple as adjusting the balance control on your source unit, to more advanced ways of digital time and intensity manipulation.

The third and final potential mounting location as shown in this diagram (scenario “c”) represents a kick panel installation, where the midbass are placed far forward in the A-frame cavity of the kick panels, present in most vehicles. The kick panels are the small panel next to the throttle and brake pedals, down by your feet. While it is not immediately obvious looking at a two-dimensional drawing, in many cases the kick panel location affords the best equalization of pathlength differences for most vehicles. And the reason why this is a good choice for most vehicles is defined in the second full paragraph of Lesson Three, below.

The lesson to be learned here is that by taking a few moments to evaluate the potential mounting locations in your vehicle, in a very short period of time, you will be able to find the best location for your Legatia X midbass by determining the location with the smallest PLD.

Lesson Three: The Effect of HRTF, ITD, and IID

Head-related transfer function (HRTF), interaural intensity differences (IID), and interaural time delay (ITD) all play a key role in the optimum placement location for the Legatia X component speakers. A sound wave approaching the eardrum from your chosen speaker location is shaped by interactions with the size and shape of your head, torso, and outer ear, resulting in the HRTF. More specifically, the HRTF is the ratio between the sound pressures of the wave at the eardrum, as compared to the sound pressure that would exist at the center of the head if the head were removed. In general, the sound arriving at the ear further from the source is attenuated and delayed relative to the sound arriving at the ear closer to the source. This generates an interaural intensity difference (IID) and an interaural time delay (ITD). As a sound approaches the head, the ratio of distances from the speaker location to the near and far ears increases, and the effects of head-shadowing are amplified, causing the IID to increase. The spectral shaping caused by the head and the shape of the outer ear may also change. The ITD, which results from the absolute difference in path length from the source to the ears, remains approximately constant as distance decreases. From this we learn:

  • ITD is the dominant factor for frequencies below about 500 Hz;
  • A combination of ITD and IID are dominant for frequencies between approximately 500 Hz and 2,000 Hz; and
  • IID, in concert with HRTF, are dominant above about 2,000 Hz.

These are generalizations, and are subject to the size and shape of one’s head and torso, and size and shape of the outer ear (the folds and ridges of the ear), but in general, the above is a good guideline for establishing ITD, IID and HRTF thresholds for the human auditory system.

Because the Legatia X midbass’ ability to play into the sub-200 Hz range, an effect clearly dominated by ITD, up to and including frequencies exceeding 6,000 Hz, an effect clearly dominated by IID and HRTF, placement of this driver is extremely important. The driver should be placed as far forward as possible in the vehicle to optimize ITD. Lateral (forward to back) placement is much more important than horizontal placement (up and down). This is because of the brain’s ability to process sounds such as spectral envelope cues, and use a phenomenon known as the “precedence effect”; the brain can be easily “fooled” into thinking a sound stage is high with kick panel or floor-mounted speakers (a word to the wise: the best place to put a set of speakers is not always “up high”, as most vehicles do not offer an amicable location in the dashboard or a-pillars for good image placement for both seated passengers, especially in the critical frequencies sub-500 Hz). In addition to the time equalized placement of the drivers, the end-user must also consider that above approximately 2,000 Hz, intensity plays a key role in good sound staging and imaging. Therefore, the Legatia X midbass’ should be placed in an area where intensity differences can be equalized, either mechanically or electronically, to ensure good imaging and sound staging.

The lesson to be learned is that, like Lesson Two, the Legatia X midbass should be placed as far forward from your listening position as possible, and every effort should be made to optimize time and intensity domain characteristics of the installation.

Lesson Four: Point-Sourcing

The term “point-sourcing” is often used to describe the technique of having a single pair of speakers in an installation cover the majority of the critical middle band frequencies. In many installation scenarios, the Legatia X midbass could be considered a point-source speaker driver, because it has the ability to reproduce six octaves of tones. Point-sourcing, if done correctly, can lend itself to a variety of valuable attributes, including precise image definition and stable sound staging character. By applying Lessons 1-3 above, the Legatia X midbass can be used as a point-source driver to achieve excellent staging and imaging results.

The lesson to be learned here is that the Legatia X midbass, given its wide-bandwidth design, can faithfully reproduce as much as six octaves of tones, and would make a valuable addition to any sound system as a point-source driver for the spectrum comprising vocal imaging cues.

Lesson Five: Reference

One of the most important things to do before completing your Legatia X installation is to get a reference for your future listening tests. To really know what a snare drum sounds like, you must go and listen to one, in person, live and un-amplified. There is no substitute for the visceral impact and emotion of live music. Nothing else in life can touch your soul the way music does. Whether it’s a 200-member orchestra, or a four-piece fusion band, nothing compares to the phenomenon of live music.

Take this as Hybrid Audio’s official request: become a student of music and your mobile audio sound system will be better for it. We want nothing more than to know there are great sounding audio systems around the world using our products, and you’d make us all very proud if you became a student of music and learned its beauty and passion.

Advanced Installation of the Legatia X Component Systems

Mounting Baffle Considerations

Now that we have revealed five of our most important “Lessons Learned”, we can now apply these lessons to the Legatia X installation. The first important matter is the physical installation of your Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, and more specifically with respect to improving the Legatia X midbass’ or midrange’s mounting baffles. Most vehicles’ factory mounting locations for speakers are less than ideal. In most cases, the OEM speaker mounting flanges are likely nothing more than flimsy extruded plastic, and provide no sonic benefit to your Legatia X installation. The Legatia X drivers are long-throw midbass, and high-performance midrange, and the plastic mounting baffles that come from the factory in virtually every vehicle will lead to buzzes, rattles, vibrations, and resonances, all of which negatively affect the Legatia X installation. In other vehicles, you may have attached the Legatia X midbass’ or midrange’s directly to the door metal (hopefully with a layer or two of self-adhesive sound damping in between), but this is still not entirely ideal. In whatever scenario you have installed your Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, there are certain “tricks” and techniques that may be applied to get the most out of your Legatia X component set, specifically the midbass and midrange installation, as follows:

Mounting the baffle, sound damping, and “decoupling”
The mounting baffle or mounting location should either be secured extremely well to the vehicle’s body, or completely isolated from the vehicle’s chassis. The reasoning is that the speaker baffle panel will vibrate and will radiate sound. Even small vibrations can result in the baffle itself radiating more sound than the actual speaker at certain frequencies. The mounting baffle or mounting location should be damped with a layer of typical sound damping to reduce the Q of the baffle and lower its vibration resonance frequency below the range of the driver’s frequency response. In many cases, using thicker baffle panel in concert with self-adhesive sound damping can also be advantageous, provided the rearward wave of the speaker has no obstructions created by the baffle itself. Finally, if possible, the speaker should be mechanically decoupled from the baffle. This can be something as simple as a layer of self-adhesive foam tape, to more exotic examples of decoupling, including rubberized rings or multiple-layer septum shielding.
Building solid mounting baffles
In many cases, it is advisable to mount your Legatia X midbass’ and/or midrange’s in high-stiffness wood or high-density fiberglass (or wood treated with fiberglass resin). Hybrid Audio Technologies recommends the use of a solid hardwood, such as birch or oak, namely because these woods are stiff and help to dissipate resonance, and screws can be inserted and removed multiple times without stripping. Avoid Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), particularly in wet environments like the door, as the MDF will act like a sponge with humidity and moisture, and not only that, the MDF is a dense, but not stiff type of wood, and the results may not be particularly noticeable if you use MDF. Once your baffle is built, it must be covered in one or two layers of a good-quality, brand name self-adhesive damping product; a solid wood mounting baffle with sound damping treatment will augment the Legatia X installation by eliminating resonances.
Mounting baffle dimensions
While building baffles is important, it is notable that mounting baffle size is equally important. All mounting baffles should be kept as small as possible with respect to the size of the speaker. The purpose of using a small baffle is to avoid the potential for low amplitude diffracted sound waves becoming summed with the incidental waves. A narrower baffle also becomes increasingly important as frequencies range into the Legatia X midbass’ and/or midrange’s upper bandwidth, where the power response is more uniform and incident and reflected waves are indistinguishable. In practical terms, keep baffle dimensions small with respect to the size of the Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, chamfer or round sharp edges (including, in particular, the mounting hole’s rear inner edge), flush-mount the speaker whenever possible, and use shallow, surface-mounted hardware. Also, remove all unnecessary protrusions from the baffle surface.
Crossovers

One of the most fundamental and important considerations in the final tweaking of a car audio system is the set-up of the speaker’s crossovers. The Legatia X drivers use rigid paper cones that exhibits little if any cone breakup in its upper frequency bandwidth. However, it is still important to utilize crossovers, especially active crossover networks to suit the speaker system to the car’s acoustic signature. It has been Hybrid Audio’s philosophy to tune the speaker system to the vehicle’s acoustic signature using just active crossovers, and only a very minor amount of equalization. Our very best world championship vehicles have always had one thing in common: creative use of active crossover filters and very minimal equalization. Use your crossovers to tune your car, and the equalizer to suit the vehicle’s speaker response to your own tastes.

The first thing to remember is that every speaker exhibits some sort of a natural roll-off. This rolloff typically amounts to about 12 dB/octave, and needs to be taken into account, especially when designing passive crossover systems (this roll-off has been accounted for in the Legatia X L2x and L3x designs). Simply adding a capacitor and inductor in series (6 dB/octave bandpass filter) to a Legatia X midrange driver does not necessarily mean that you’ll see a phase coherent 6 dB/octave bandpass filter at its crosspoints. In fact, summing the effect of the driver’s natural bandpass roll-off, you might actually be approaching a theoretical 18 dB/octave bandpass filter at certain frequencies. Not only this, but the speaker could potentially begin to exhibit significant intermodulation distortion as the cone becomes non-linear trying to reproduce the lowest octave of tones, not to mention irregular polar radiation patterns between the Legatia X midbass/midrange and the accompanying Legatia X tweeter.

Given the large uncertainty of low-order crossover systems, Hybrid Audio recommends the use of higher-order electronic crossovers so that fine tuning can be done electronically. The active network benefits from easy correction of different speaker sensitivities and equalizing not only the individual drivers but the combined response as well. Not having to account for the speaker’s impedance verses frequency, as well as the passive device impedance and phase shift makes the active filter superior to most passive crossover networks, due to the fact that each and every aspect can be tailored to better suit the individual installation’s requirements. However, we understand that in some cases that passive filters are required, and thus the reason why we have manufactured the Legatia L2x two-way and Legatia L3x three-way passive crossover systems. In our humble opinion, however, the ideal crossover system for most users, is an active one that takes into account the Legatia X driver location and its characteristics, in concert with the polar radiation patterns of other speakers involved, all the while balancing linear and non-linear distortion (non-linear harmonic distortion increases with sound pressure level or cone displacement, and thus, crossover frequency is critical and can be vehicle and user dependent).

As mentioned previously in “Lesson Three”, imaging cues of near-field (within 3m) sources come from effectively two auditory methods: ITD and IID. ITD is the time it takes for sound to reach the far ear after reaching the near ear. Typical adult male heads have an ITD maximum of approximately 400 microseconds. IID is the measure of intensity difference of the far ear as compared to the near ear. ITD is typically used by the brain to localize low frequency sources below 500 Hz. IID is typically used by the brain to localize high frequency sources, above 2,000 Hz. HRTF is also used in conjunction with IID. Above approximately 4,000 Hz, the higher frequencies are attenuated by the head for the far side ear. A sound to your left will have a different spectral content for the left ear as compared to the right ear. The HRTF is unique for each individual (based upon shape and size of the head and torso) but typically occurs at around 4,000-5,000 Hz. HRTF will affect the IID at even higher frequencies, more so than simple average SPL. Above 6,000 Hz or so, the HRTF portion of IID becomes the dominant factor. The spoken word (human voice) comprises a fundamental frequency range of approximately 150 Hz to 6,000 Hz.

Taking the above into account, your desired crossover frequency for the Legatia X midrange and/or midbass should be one that allows the midbass or midrange to play as much of the audible spectrum of the spoken voice to ensure point-source delivery of the tones and pinpoint image definition. In many cases, this would be around 200-250 Hz for high pass, and around 6,000 Hz, or higher, for low pass. In all cases, the chosen crossover frequencies should be evaluated for sonic character, while balancing distortion and power compression at high amplitude levels.

Acoustic Treatment

A considerable benefit can be made to any mobile audio system with the select placement of acoustic treatments. The purpose of using acoustic treatments is to reduce the amount of reflected energy in the hostile automotive environment, and hear more of the direct sound being emanated from the speaker. It is akin to the signal to noise (S/N) ratio in a piece of electronics, where the signal could be considered the direct energy coming from the speaker, and the noise could be considered the reflected waves off of nearby surfaces, such as windows, hard center consoles and door panels, windscreens, and etc. A word of warning though: there is a fine line between too little and too much acoustic treatment; just as some vehicles can benefit from some selectively applied treatments, there is a point where the vehicle can begin to approach “semi-anechoic” conditions, and lose its liveliness, which is not ideal. Reflections are all around us, and are a part of our day-to-day lives. It is our opinion that some lateral reflection is a good thing; it helps to establish stage boundaries, and gives the recoded playback and more visceral and “believable” sound.

The first principle to understand is that below 200 Hz, acoustic treatments are rendered virtually useless. It is Hybrid Audio’s assertion that only those frequencies above 200 Hz benefit from the use of treatments, given that a 200 Hz waveform is about 1.7 m long; 1.7 meters is less than or equal to most vehicle widths. This is also the frequency where we believe pure tones in the vehicle are going to be difficult, if not impossible to localize. Finally, most vehicles exhibit a Schroeder Frequency (Fs) between 50 at 125 Hz; the Fs (or cabin-gain frequency) is vehicle dependent, and is the frequency at which resonances become so tightly packed in frequency and space that the acoustical properties of the vehicle behave quite uniformly. (As an aside, one significant benefit of car audio sound systems is that frequencies below the lowest room resonance increase at a theoretical 12 dB/octave…it’s no wonder car audio systems have such great bass!)

Acoustic treatment can be very effective above 200 Hz, depending mostly on the polar radiation pattern of the speaker. In the case of the Legatia X midbass, the polar radiation pattern is quite large at lower frequencies, with a narrowing of the radiation pattern (“beaming”) at frequencies into the treble bandwidth.

Should the Legatia X midbass and/or midrange be placed in the kick panel locations, one may find that a notable improvement can be made by adding acoustical treatments, such as open-cell foam, into the underside of the dashboard. Likewise, should the midbass, midrange, and/or tweeter be placed up high on a-pillars, or in the dashboard, where comb filtering (reflective summation and cancellation off of a hard surface, such as a windscreen) may become an issue, a dashboard “mat” or other soft furnishing may be a noticeable improvement. It will require trial and error to get it right, but the learning is in the experimentation!

Conclusions

Sadly, there are no rules in mobile audio, only several hypothesis and theorems that seem to work for most vehicles. Your vehicle may be different, and defy everything we know, and everything written in this manual. You may find that getting that rich, detailed sound that you crave may require some experimentation and a lot of work to make it right. Or you might be fortunate to have a vehicle that sounds excellent with minimal work. Have patience and work through the issues; the result will be a rewarding musical experience in your vehicle! Just remember, it is critical to get a reference, as detailed in Lesson 5. Go out and become a student of music and audio, learn, and improve your audio system one step at a time. The journey is exciting and rewarding!

What we have included above is only a very brief primer to the world of high-end mobile audio systems. We invite you to read more by going to our website.

Time Alignment

Introduction

It is our humble opinion that time correction should only be used in three different circumstances:

1) When the installer recognizes that a vehicle cannot image properly from both seated positions and it seems more plausible to make the vehicle stage and image well from only one seated position.
2) To counter the effects of group delay.
3) Time alignment between pairs of drivers.

Scenario 1
The first scenario is rather elementary. If a vehicle is too small to achieve equalized PLD’s, it doesn’t lend itself well to equalized PLD’s, or the vehicle’s owner doesn’t wish to embark on physical reconstruction of the car to achieve optimized PLD’s, it is a good use of time correction to make the vehicle image well from the single seated position. It should be noted that it is Hybrid Audio’s opinion that it is always better to improve the car mechanically and attempt to fix mechanical problems with mechanical solutions, than it is use to electronics to fix mechanical problems. However, we realize that there is the occasion when there is little desire to try to mechanically optimize one’s listening space, and electronic manipulation is desired. It is important to recognize that, given the fundamentals of ITD and IID discussed previously, time alignment is rendered virtually useless for frequencies above approximately 2,000 Hz.
Scenario 2
In the second scenario, the use of time correction is much more cognitive, and shows great promise for countering the effects of group delay. Group delay is impulse response over time. Group delay increases significantly at low frequencies, and is considerable in larger midbass and subwoofers. An excellent use of time correction would be to delay the smaller Legatia X midranges and tweeters with respect to the larger midbass and subwoofers, so that the low frequency delay of these drivers is synchronized in the time domain with the output of the midrange and treble frequencies.
Scenario 3
The final scenario is time alignment between pairs of drivers. When employing multiple drivers in order to achieve a unified listening experience within a vehicle, it’s usually a requirement to install the drivers at physically separated locations; for example, your midbass may be located in the doors, and the midrange and tweeter may be located in the dashboard or a-pillar. In order to compensate for this, you might choose to selectively delay certain speakers in the installation so that all of the tones reach your ears at the same time (note that as previously alluded to, time alignment of your tweeters would be rendered virtually useless).
Amplitude Equalization

An excellent use of today’s dual-mono equalizers and advanced digital signal processing is the ability to equalize amplitude anomalies between speakers and sets of speakers installed in a vehicle. In a vehicular installation, the frequency response of drivers can sometimes be manipulated for the betterment of the system using independent left and right amplitude adjustment. Virtually any good car audio system can be made better with judicious use of a minor amount of equalization. And while equalization will not cure phasing anomalies in a car, usually the product of vehicular mechanics, they can certainly be helpful in fine-tuning the system to your own personal taste or in the quest for playback accuracy to the original musical composition.

One important consideration of amplitude equalization (also known in some circles as “amplitude alignment”) is the ability to tune those frequencies above about 500 Hz that are not completely affected by time correction. The very best vehicles have some sort of amplitude equalization between the left and right speakers to account for IID and HRTF. After your Legatia X system is installed, you may wish to attempt some minor amplitude equalization between the left and right channels to achieve a more stable image that is not frequency dependent, or perhaps to improve image placement or stage coherency.

Warranty

Hybrid Audio Technologies extends a limited one year warranty to the original purchaser when self-installed, and three years warranty when installed by a certified Hybrid Audio Technologies dealer (United States only), and hereby certifies that this product will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal and proper use for one year from the date of purchase.

Advanced System Installation Considerations

Introduction

Hybrid Audio Technologies has prepared a more advanced topical discussion of Legatia X installation techniques, concepts, and principals, where a little bit of additional installation work can net immense gains in overall sound quality.

There are certainly many things you can do to improve your mobile audio system, such as addition of amplification, a dedicated subwoofer system, higher-gauge speaker wire, and higher-end passive crossovers, and active crossovers. All of these things require an additional amount of monetary investment into your audio system, and may not net the immediate gains that other, more elementary installation items can net. The following discussion is pertinent to easy and cost-effective enhancements you can do for your audio system, particularly as it relates to the installation of Legatia X component speakers.

In any mobile audio system, the weakest link will always be the speaker systems, followed closely by installation techniques (sometimes its vice-versa). Since the Legatia X component system you have purchased has solved the first issue, the second issue, that being installation techniques, can see a significant improvement as well by understanding and incorporating some or all of the techniques in the following sections.

Lessons Learned

We like to call this our “Lessons Learned” section, where we expose some critical lessons that we have learned through thousands upon thousands of hours of trial and error:

Lesson One: Off-Axis Response

When a speaker system like the Legatia X is placed in an automotive environment, we hear the direct (shortest path) and reflected (longer path) sounds, such as resonances and reverberations. The two sounds are processed by the brain as one sound, and this influences our perception of height, width, and depth of soundstage, as well as rearward ambience. For this reason, the off-axis radiation pattern of any speaker in a vehicular environment has a significant influence on how natural the music sounds.

The lesson to learn here is that most mobile audio sound systems benefit greatly from having the front stage speakers at least partially “off-axis.” Off-axis means that the speakers are not pointing at you, but rather at some angle less than 90 degrees away from you.

Lesson Two: Equalization of Pathlength Differences

Quite possibly the most important functional consideration that a do-it-yourself enthusiast or professional installer should give to the Legatia X speaker placement is to optimize, as best as possible, pathlength differences (PLD’s) in the vehicle. PLD’s are defined mathematically as follows (this example assumes a right-hand drive vehicle---PLD’s are always a positive number):

X – Y = Z

Where:

X = distance of the center of the left speaker from your left ear.
Y = distance of the center of the right speaker from your right ear.
Z = pathlength difference.

Applying this formula, assume that the distance of the left speaker from your left ear is 140cm, and the distance of the right speaker from your right ear is 100cm, the pathlength difference is 40cm.

Good stereo imaging is completely dependent on arrival times of the fundamental vocal frequencies. Differences as little as 10 microseconds can be detected by the brain. A PLD of 30 centimeters equates to the sound from the nearest channel arriving about 0.9 milliseconds earlier than the furthest channel. It is Hybrid Audio’s opinion that the end-user should try to keep PLD’s to less than 30 centimeters in a vehicle which is intended to have good imaging and staging character from both seated positions.

The best way to go about evaluating certain locations in your vehicle is, in general, to look for the potential locations as far forward and away from you as possible, but still with a general “line of sight” to the speakers (particularly the speaker on the far side of the vehicle). An easy way to test various potential locations is to hold a tape measure or other measurement device from the potential speaker mounting locations, and measure those locations with respect to your ears.

In scenario “a”, we show the installation of the Legatia X midbass in the dashboard, high in a door panel, or in the dashboard. As you can see from the diagram, the PLD’s between the left and right speakers are large, due to the proximity of the listener to the near-side speaker. While the mounting of primary drivers in the dashboard or a-pillars has become increasingly popular, this configuration will undoubtedly require both time and intensity domain equalization in most vehicles to ensure a good, focused center image, properly located in the center of the vehicle for one seated position. There are, however, some rare exceptions, and you may actually find that the dashboard locations provide the best equalized PLD of the available mounting locations; this is very rare though – in our experience, less than one percent of vehicles on the market today have optimized dashboard speaker locations for the midbass drivers.

In scenario “b”, a typical door installation location is shown, and in many vehicles represents a good improvement in PLD’s from the dashboard, high in the door panel, and a-pillar location identified in scenario “a.” The door speaker installation scenario is the one detailed in the basic installation section at the beginning of this manual, and in most vehicles represents a satisfactory location to mount speakers; not ideal but satisfactory. The door speaker installation scenario will likely also require some amount of time and intensity equalization to ensure a centered image in most vehicles; this can be as simple as adjusting the balance control on your source unit, to more advanced ways of digital time and intensity manipulation.

The third and final potential mounting location as shown in this diagram (scenario “c”) represents a kick panel installation, where the midbass are placed far forward in the A-frame cavity of the kick panels, present in most vehicles. The kick panels are the small panel next to the throttle and brake pedals, down by your feet. While it is not immediately obvious looking at a two-dimensional drawing, in many cases the kick panel location affords the best equalization of pathlength differences for most vehicles. And the reason why this is a good choice for most vehicles is defined in the second full paragraph of Lesson Three, below.

The lesson to be learned here is that by taking a few moments to evaluate the potential mounting locations in your vehicle, in a very short period of time, you will be able to find the best location for your Legatia X midbass by determining the location with the smallest PLD.

Lesson Three: The Effect of HRTF, ITD, and IID

Head-related transfer function (HRTF), interaural intensity differences (IID), and interaural time delay (ITD) all play a key role in the optimum placement location for the Legatia X component speakers. A sound wave approaching the eardrum from your chosen speaker location is shaped by interactions with the size and shape of your head, torso, and outer ear, resulting in the HRTF. More specifically, the HRTF is the ratio between the sound pressures of the wave at the eardrum, as compared to the sound pressure that would exist at the center of the head if the head were removed. In general, the sound arriving at the ear further from the source is attenuated and delayed relative to the sound arriving at the ear closer to the source. This generates an interaural intensity difference (IID) and an interaural time delay (ITD). As a sound approaches the head, the ratio of distances from the speaker location to the near and far ears increases, and the effects of head-shadowing are amplified, causing the IID to increase. The spectral shaping caused by the head and the shape of the outer ear may also change. The ITD, which results from the absolute difference in path length from the source to the ears, remains approximately constant as distance decreases. From this we learn:

  • ITD is the dominant factor for frequencies below about 500 Hz;
  • A combination of ITD and IID are dominant for frequencies between approximately 500 Hz and 2,000 Hz; and
  • IID, in concert with HRTF, are dominant above about 2,000 Hz.

These are generalizations, and are subject to the size and shape of one’s head and torso, and size and shape of the outer ear (the folds and ridges of the ear), but in general, the above is a good guideline for establishing ITD, IID and HRTF thresholds for the human auditory system.

Because the Legatia X midbass’ ability to play into the sub-200 Hz range, an effect clearly dominated by ITD, up to and including frequencies exceeding 6,000 Hz, an effect clearly dominated by IID and HRTF, placement of this driver is extremely important. The driver should be placed as far forward as possible in the vehicle to optimize ITD. Lateral (forward to back) placement is much more important than horizontal placement (up and down). This is because of the brain’s ability to process sounds such as spectral envelope cues, and use a phenomenon known as the “precedence effect”; the brain can be easily “fooled” into thinking a sound stage is high with kick panel or floor-mounted speakers (a word to the wise: the best place to put a set of speakers is not always “up high”, as most vehicles do not offer an amicable location in the dashboard or a-pillars for good image placement for both seated passengers, especially in the critical frequencies sub-500 Hz). In addition to the time equalized placement of the drivers, the end-user must also consider that above approximately 2,000 Hz, intensity plays a key role in good sound staging and imaging. Therefore, the Legatia X midbass’ should be placed in an area where intensity differences can be equalized, either mechanically or electronically, to ensure good imaging and sound staging.

The lesson to be learned is that, like Lesson Two, the Legatia X midbass should be placed as far forward from your listening position as possible, and every effort should be made to optimize time and intensity domain characteristics of the installation.

Lesson Four: Point-Sourcing

The term “point-sourcing” is often used to describe the technique of having a single pair of speakers in an installation cover the majority of the critical middle band frequencies. In many installation scenarios, the Legatia X midbass could be considered a point-source speaker driver, because it has the ability to reproduce six octaves of tones. Point-sourcing, if done correctly, can lend itself to a variety of valuable attributes, including precise image definition and stable sound staging character. By applying Lessons 1-3 above, the Legatia X midbass can be used as a point-source driver to achieve excellent staging and imaging results.

The lesson to be learned here is that the Legatia X midbass, given its wide-bandwidth design, can faithfully reproduce as much as six octaves of tones, and would make a valuable addition to any sound system as a point-source driver for the spectrum comprising vocal imaging cues.

Lesson Five: Reference

One of the most important things to do before completing your Legatia X installation is to get a reference for your future listening tests. To really know what a snare drum sounds like, you must go and listen to one, in person, live and un-amplified. There is no substitute for the visceral impact and emotion of live music. Nothing else in life can touch your soul the way music does. Whether it’s a 200-member orchestra, or a four-piece fusion band, nothing compares to the phenomenon of live music.

Take this as Hybrid Audio’s official request: become a student of music and your mobile audio sound system will be better for it. We want nothing more than to know there are great sounding audio systems around the world using our products, and you’d make us all very proud if you became a student of music and learned its beauty and passion.

Advanced Installation of the Legatia X Component Systems

Mounting Baffle Considerations

Now that we have revealed five of our most important “Lessons Learned”, we can now apply these lessons to the Legatia X installation. The first important matter is the physical installation of your Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, and more specifically with respect to improving the Legatia X midbass’ or midrange’s mounting baffles. Most vehicles’ factory mounting locations for speakers are less than ideal. In most cases, the OEM speaker mounting flanges are likely nothing more than flimsy extruded plastic, and provide no sonic benefit to your Legatia X installation. The Legatia X drivers are long-throw midbass, and high-performance midrange, and the plastic mounting baffles that come from the factory in virtually every vehicle will lead to buzzes, rattles, vibrations, and resonances, all of which negatively affect the Legatia X installation. In other vehicles, you may have attached the Legatia X midbass’ or midrange’s directly to the door metal (hopefully with a layer or two of self-adhesive sound damping in between), but this is still not entirely ideal. In whatever scenario you have installed your Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, there are certain “tricks” and techniques that may be applied to get the most out of your Legatia X component set, specifically the midbass and midrange installation, as follows:

Mounting the baffle, sound damping, and “decoupling”
The mounting baffle or mounting location should either be secured extremely well to the vehicle’s body, or completely isolated from the vehicle’s chassis. The reasoning is that the speaker baffle panel will vibrate and will radiate sound. Even small vibrations can result in the baffle itself radiating more sound than the actual speaker at certain frequencies. The mounting baffle or mounting location should be damped with a layer of typical sound damping to reduce the Q of the baffle and lower its vibration resonance frequency below the range of the driver’s frequency response. In many cases, using thicker baffle panel in concert with self-adhesive sound damping can also be advantageous, provided the rearward wave of the speaker has no obstructions created by the baffle itself. Finally, if possible, the speaker should be mechanically decoupled from the baffle. This can be something as simple as a layer of self-adhesive foam tape, to more exotic examples of decoupling, including rubberized rings or multiple-layer septum shielding.
Building solid mounting baffles
In many cases, it is advisable to mount your Legatia X midbass’ and/or midrange’s in high-stiffness wood or high-density fiberglass (or wood treated with fiberglass resin). Hybrid Audio Technologies recommends the use of a solid hardwood, such as birch or oak, namely because these woods are stiff and help to dissipate resonance, and screws can be inserted and removed multiple times without stripping. Avoid Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), particularly in wet environments like the door, as the MDF will act like a sponge with humidity and moisture, and not only that, the MDF is a dense, but not stiff type of wood, and the results may not be particularly noticeable if you use MDF. Once your baffle is built, it must be covered in one or two layers of a good-quality, brand name self-adhesive damping product; a solid wood mounting baffle with sound damping treatment will augment the Legatia X installation by eliminating resonances.
Mounting baffle dimensions
While building baffles is important, it is notable that mounting baffle size is equally important. All mounting baffles should be kept as small as possible with respect to the size of the speaker. The purpose of using a small baffle is to avoid the potential for low amplitude diffracted sound waves becoming summed with the incidental waves. A narrower baffle also becomes increasingly important as frequencies range into the Legatia X midbass’ and/or midrange’s upper bandwidth, where the power response is more uniform and incident and reflected waves are indistinguishable. In practical terms, keep baffle dimensions small with respect to the size of the Legatia X midbass and/or midrange, chamfer or round sharp edges (including, in particular, the mounting hole’s rear inner edge), flush-mount the speaker whenever possible, and use shallow, surface-mounted hardware. Also, remove all unnecessary protrusions from the baffle surface.
Crossovers

One of the most fundamental and important considerations in the final tweaking of a car audio system is the set-up of the speaker’s crossovers. The Legatia X drivers use rigid paper cones that exhibits little if any cone breakup in its upper frequency bandwidth. However, it is still important to utilize crossovers, especially active crossover networks to suit the speaker system to the car’s acoustic signature. It has been Hybrid Audio’s philosophy to tune the speaker system to the vehicle’s acoustic signature using just active crossovers, and only a very minor amount of equalization. Our very best world championship vehicles have always had one thing in common: creative use of active crossover filters and very minimal equalization. Use your crossovers to tune your car, and the equalizer to suit the vehicle’s speaker response to your own tastes.

The first thing to remember is that every speaker exhibits some sort of a natural roll-off. This rolloff typically amounts to about 12 dB/octave, and needs to be taken into account, especially when designing passive crossover systems (this roll-off has been accounted for in the Legatia X L2x and L3x designs). Simply adding a capacitor and inductor in series (6 dB/octave bandpass filter) to a Legatia X midrange driver does not necessarily mean that you’ll see a phase coherent 6 dB/octave bandpass filter at its crosspoints. In fact, summing the effect of the driver’s natural bandpass roll-off, you might actually be approaching a theoretical 18 dB/octave bandpass filter at certain frequencies. Not only this, but the speaker could potentially begin to exhibit significant intermodulation distortion as the cone becomes non-linear trying to reproduce the lowest octave of tones, not to mention irregular polar radiation patterns between the Legatia X midbass/midrange and the accompanying Legatia X tweeter.

Given the large uncertainty of low-order crossover systems, Hybrid Audio recommends the use of higher-order electronic crossovers so that fine tuning can be done electronically. The active network benefits from easy correction of different speaker sensitivities and equalizing not only the individual drivers but the combined response as well. Not having to account for the speaker’s impedance verses frequency, as well as the passive device impedance and phase shift makes the active filter superior to most passive crossover networks, due to the fact that each and every aspect can be tailored to better suit the individual installation’s requirements. However, we understand that in some cases that passive filters are required, and thus the reason why we have manufactured the Legatia L2x two-way and Legatia L3x three-way passive crossover systems. In our humble opinion, however, the ideal crossover system for most users, is an active one that takes into account the Legatia X driver location and its characteristics, in concert with the polar radiation patterns of other speakers involved, all the while balancing linear and non-linear distortion (non-linear harmonic distortion increases with sound pressure level or cone displacement, and thus, crossover frequency is critical and can be vehicle and user dependent).

As mentioned previously in “Lesson Three”, imaging cues of near-field (within 3m) sources come from effectively two auditory methods: ITD and IID. ITD is the time it takes for sound to reach the far ear after reaching the near ear. Typical adult male heads have an ITD maximum of approximately 400 microseconds. IID is the measure of intensity difference of the far ear as compared to the near ear. ITD is typically used by the brain to localize low frequency sources below 500 Hz. IID is typically used by the brain to localize high frequency sources, above 2,000 Hz. HRTF is also used in conjunction with IID. Above approximately 4,000 Hz, the higher frequencies are attenuated by the head for the far side ear. A sound to your left will have a different spectral content for the left ear as compared to the right ear. The HRTF is unique for each individual (based upon shape and size of the head and torso) but typically occurs at around 4,000-5,000 Hz. HRTF will affect the IID at even higher frequencies, more so than simple average SPL. Above 6,000 Hz or so, the HRTF portion of IID becomes the dominant factor. The spoken word (human voice) comprises a fundamental frequency range of approximately 150 Hz to 6,000 Hz.

Taking the above into account, your desired crossover frequency for the Legatia X midrange and/or midbass should be one that allows the midbass or midrange to play as much of the audible spectrum of the spoken voice to ensure point-source delivery of the tones and pinpoint image definition. In many cases, this would be around 200-250 Hz for high pass, and around 6,000 Hz, or higher, for low pass. In all cases, the chosen crossover frequencies should be evaluated for sonic character, while balancing distortion and power compression at high amplitude levels.

Acoustic Treatment

A considerable benefit can be made to any mobile audio system with the select placement of acoustic treatments. The purpose of using acoustic treatments is to reduce the amount of reflected energy in the hostile automotive environment, and hear more of the direct sound being emanated from the speaker. It is akin to the signal to noise (S/N) ratio in a piece of electronics, where the signal could be considered the direct energy coming from the speaker, and the noise could be considered the reflected waves off of nearby surfaces, such as windows, hard center consoles and door panels, windscreens, and etc. A word of warning though: there is a fine line between too little and too much acoustic treatment; just as some vehicles can benefit from some selectively applied treatments, there is a point where the vehicle can begin to approach “semi-anechoic” conditions, and lose its liveliness, which is not ideal. Reflections are all around us, and are a part of our day-to-day lives. It is our opinion that some lateral reflection is a good thing; it helps to establish stage boundaries, and gives the recoded playback and more visceral and “believable” sound.

The first principle to understand is that below 200 Hz, acoustic treatments are rendered virtually useless. It is Hybrid Audio’s assertion that only those frequencies above 200 Hz benefit from the use of treatments, given that a 200 Hz waveform is about 1.7 m long; 1.7 meters is less than or equal to most vehicle widths. This is also the frequency where we believe pure tones in the vehicle are going to be difficult, if not impossible to localize. Finally, most vehicles exhibit a Schroeder Frequency (Fs) between 50 at 125 Hz; the Fs (or cabin-gain frequency) is vehicle dependent, and is the frequency at which resonances become so tightly packed in frequency and space that the acoustical properties of the vehicle behave quite uniformly. (As an aside, one significant benefit of car audio sound systems is that frequencies below the lowest room resonance increase at a theoretical 12 dB/octave…it’s no wonder car audio systems have such great bass!)

Acoustic treatment can be very effective above 200 Hz, depending mostly on the polar radiation pattern of the speaker. In the case of the Legatia X midbass, the polar radiation pattern is quite large at lower frequencies, with a narrowing of the radiation pattern (“beaming”) at frequencies into the treble bandwidth.

Should the Legatia X midbass and/or midrange be placed in the kick panel locations, one may find that a notable improvement can be made by adding acoustical treatments, such as open-cell foam, into the underside of the dashboard. Likewise, should the midbass, midrange, and/or tweeter be placed up high on a-pillars, or in the dashboard, where comb filtering (reflective summation and cancellation off of a hard surface, such as a windscreen) may become an issue, a dashboard “mat” or other soft furnishing may be a noticeable improvement. It will require trial and error to get it right, but the learning is in the experimentation!

Conclusions

Sadly, there are no rules in mobile audio, only several hypothesis and theorems that seem to work for most vehicles. Your vehicle may be different, and defy everything we know, and everything written in this manual. You may find that getting that rich, detailed sound that you crave may require some experimentation and a lot of work to make it right. Or you might be fortunate to have a vehicle that sounds excellent with minimal work. Have patience and work through the issues; the result will be a rewarding musical experience in your vehicle! Just remember, it is critical to get a reference, as detailed in Lesson 5. Go out and become a student of music and audio, learn, and improve your audio system one step at a time. The journey is exciting and rewarding!

What we have included above is only a very brief primer to the world of high-end mobile audio systems. We invite you to read more by going to our website.

Time Alignment

Introduction

It is our humble opinion that time correction should only be used in three different circumstances:

1) When the installer recognizes that a vehicle cannot image properly from both seated positions and it seems more plausible to make the vehicle stage and image well from only one seated position.
2) To counter the effects of group delay.
3) Time alignment between pairs of drivers.

Scenario 1
The first scenario is rather elementary. If a vehicle is too small to achieve equalized PLD’s, it doesn’t lend itself well to equalized PLD’s, or the vehicle’s owner doesn’t wish to embark on physical reconstruction of the car to achieve optimized PLD’s, it is a good use of time correction to make the vehicle image well from the single seated position. It should be noted that it is Hybrid Audio’s opinion that it is always better to improve the car mechanically and attempt to fix mechanical problems with mechanical solutions, than it is use to electronics to fix mechanical problems. However, we realize that there is the occasion when there is little desire to try to mechanically optimize one’s listening space, and electronic manipulation is desired. It is important to recognize that, given the fundamentals of ITD and IID discussed previously, time alignment is rendered virtually useless for frequencies above approximately 2,000 Hz.
Scenario 2
In the second scenario, the use of time correction is much more cognitive, and shows great promise for countering the effects of group delay. Group delay is impulse response over time. Group delay increases significantly at low frequencies, and is considerable in larger midbass and subwoofers. An excellent use of time correction would be to delay the smaller Legatia X midranges and tweeters with respect to the larger midbass and subwoofers, so that the low frequency delay of these drivers is synchronized in the time domain with the output of the midrange and treble frequencies.
Scenario 3
The final scenario is time alignment between pairs of drivers. When employing multiple drivers in order to achieve a unified listening experience within a vehicle, it’s usually a requirement to install the drivers at physically separated locations; for example, your midbass may be located in the doors, and the midrange and tweeter may be located in the dashboard or a-pillar. In order to compensate for this, you might choose to selectively delay certain speakers in the installation so that all of the tones reach your ears at the same time (note that as previously alluded to, time alignment of your tweeters would be rendered virtually useless).
Amplitude Equalization

An excellent use of today’s dual-mono equalizers and advanced digital signal processing is the ability to equalize amplitude anomalies between speakers and sets of speakers installed in a vehicle. In a vehicular installation, the frequency response of drivers can sometimes be manipulated for the betterment of the system using independent left and right amplitude adjustment. Virtually any good car audio system can be made better with judicious use of a minor amount of equalization. And while equalization will not cure phasing anomalies in a car, usually the product of vehicular mechanics, they can certainly be helpful in fine-tuning the system to your own personal taste or in the quest for playback accuracy to the original musical composition.

One important consideration of amplitude equalization (also known in some circles as “amplitude alignment”) is the ability to tune those frequencies above about 500 Hz that are not completely affected by time correction. The very best vehicles have some sort of amplitude equalization between the left and right speakers to account for IID and HRTF. After your Legatia X system is installed, you may wish to attempt some minor amplitude equalization between the left and right channels to achieve a more stable image that is not frequency dependent, or perhaps to improve image placement or stage coherency.

Warranty

Hybrid Audio Technologies extends a limited one year warranty to the original purchaser when self-installed, and three years warranty when installed by a certified Hybrid Audio Technologies dealer (United States only), and hereby certifies that this product will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal and proper use for one year from the date of purchase.

Results

  • 2005

    Company Founded and Legatia-series Introduced
  • 2006

    Six Top-Three Placements and Three Finals Championships
  • 2007

    Legatia-series Expanded and Eight Finals Championships
  • 2008

    Clarus-series Introduced, L1 Pro Introduced, Legatia named 'State of the Art' by Talk Audio Magazine, Six Finals Championships, and Guaranteed Value Program Initiated
  • 2009

    L1 Pro R2 Introduced, Imagine-series Subwoofers Introduced, and 16 Finals Championships
  • 2010

    Imagine-series Introduced, 12 Finals Championships, posted highest score recorded to date, and California Hub Announced
  • 2011

    Mirus- and Unity-series Introduced, 20 Finals Championships, and the highest score ever recorded in organized car audio competition of 993.5
  • 2012

    Legatia L3 Pro Introduced, Unity named 'Reference Class' by Talk Audio Magazine, and 70 Top-Three Placements, 25 Championships, and IASCA Triple Crown Award.
  • 2013

    Clarus-series Subwoofers Introduced, 100 1st Place Trophies, 150 Placements, Multiple IASCA Triple Crown Awards, and Six Finals Championships
  • 2015-2016

    Nine 'GP' training/competition events held in several countries, and Hybrid Audio named distributor in US/Mexico for Audiotec Fischer
  • 2016

    Ten Finals Championships, 44 Top-Three Placements, Seven One-Two Sweeps, Four Top-Three Sweeps, and Two All-Placement Sweeps.

Our first and original offering, initially launched in 2005, and refined over the course of the past decade, the widely-acclaimed Legatia Series; the product that defined the brand and its quality.

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Legatia-Series Installation & Reference Manual

Covers in-depth speaker design attributes, driver specifications, mechanical drawings, frequency response graphs, advanced installation techniques, and warranty information.

Follow this link or press the cover photo to view the Legatia-series Reference Manual.

Follow this link to view the Legatia Pro-series Reference Manual.

Design Principles

Wide-Bandwidth Operation
Hybrid Audio Technologies designs ensure that the midbass or midrange in each component system effectively reproduce an extremely wide bandwidth, exceeding six or more octaves. Of particular importance is the ability of Hybrid Audio Technologies drivers to operate within the bandwidth of the human vocal range, ensuring point-source tonality, and phase-coherent imaging and staging due to a single point-source.
Proprietary blend diaphragms with virtually negligible cone break-up.
Of particular notability in the Hybrid Audio Technologies line-up is the use of proprietary paper blends for all midrange and midbass diaphragms. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. This topology also ensures soft, almost negligible cone break-up modes (distortions) being emanated from the diaphragm.
Power handling without power compression.
All Hybrid Audio Technologies designs allow for use in extremely high-power applications without readily manifesting power compression and boast high nominal and thermal power handling.
Extremely light moving mass.
Race cars get light wheels because there is a benefit to less rotational mass. the same rules apply for speakers. Having extremely light cone materials ensures that the music is tracked well, and that impulse response is extremely good in all Hybrid Audio Technologies speakers.
Excellent on- and off-axis frequency response.
Hybrid Audio Technologies incorporation of diaphragm material, diameter, and geometry, in concert with phase plug pole pieces, low-inductance profles and light moving mass ensures that all hybrid Audio technologies designs work well both on- and off-axis.
Quality factors amenable for infinite baffle operation.
Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of dfferent installations and speaker locations. Hybrid Audio Technologies midrange and midbass drivers are intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration ensuring fool-proof installation and exceptional sound quality “right out of the box.”

Design Principles

Wide-Bandwidth Operation
Hybrid Audio Technologies designs ensure that the midbass or midrange in each component system effectively reproduce an extremely wide bandwidth, exceeding six or more octaves. Of particular importance is the ability of Hybrid Audio Technologies drivers to operate within the bandwidth of the human vocal range, ensuring point-source tonality, and phase-coherent imaging and staging due to a single point-source.
Proprietary blend diaphragms with virtually negligible cone break-up.
Of particular notability in the Hybrid Audio Technologies line-up is the use of proprietary paper blends for all midrange and midbass diaphragms. Paper is widely acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. This topology also ensures soft, almost negligible cone break-up modes (distortions) being emanated from the diaphragm.
Power handling without power compression.
All Hybrid Audio Technologies designs allow for use in extremely high-power applications without readily manifesting power compression and boast high nominal and thermal power handling.
Extremely light moving mass.
Race cars get light wheels because there is a benefit to less rotational mass. the same rules apply for speakers. Having extremely light cone materials ensures that the music is tracked well, and that impulse response is extremely good in all Hybrid Audio Technologies speakers.
Superior polar response.
Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter designs utilize no larger than a 25mm tweeter diaphragm, as it’s widely acknowledged that smaller-diameter tweeters offer superior polar response and extended use without signi cant listener fatigue.
Low- and high-resonance tweeter applications.
Hybrid Audio Technologies builds both low- and high-resonance tweeters for different in-car applications. The end-user can take advantage of low resonance, tuned chamber options in ring radiator or soft dome format, or high-resonance dome format for the ultimate in system flexibility.
Excellent on- and off-axis frequency response.
Hybrid Audio Technologies incorporation of diaphragm material, diameter, and geometry, in concert with phase plug pole pieces, low-inductance profles and light moving mass ensures that all hybrid Audio technologies designs work well both on- and off-axis.
Low distortion motor topologies and flat and wide BL.
The motors of the midrange midbass units manufactured by Hybrid Audio Technologies provide for a flat and wide BL curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant torque curve). reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits.
Low inductance profiles.
Inductance is the biggest limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD). Hybrid Audio Technologies speaker systems ensure optimization of the total inductance profile.
Enhanced Driver Suspensions
All Hybrid Audio Technologies midrange and midbass designs utilize inverted butyl rubber high-loss surrounds which are highly consistent, terminating mechanical vibrations well, and having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. Spiders are designed for optimal performance, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Quality factors amenable for infinite baffle operation.
Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of dfferent installations and speaker locations. Hybrid Audio Technologies midrange and midbass drivers are intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration ensuring fool-proof installation and exceptional sound quality “right out of the box.”
Intensive development of speakers.
One of Hybrid Audio Technologies’ main design tenets is to spend the time and resources necessary to make the speakers exceptional in the design phase, and then use simpleton filtering to protect only for thermal protection at resonance. Simply put, board-mounted equalization corrects poor speaker design. Likewise, a poorly designed midrange or midbass requires the use of a tweeter crossed into the vocal spectrum. none of our designs, in any series, use crossovers that contain any form of equalization beyond simple tweeter attenuation, and likewise, none require the use of the tweeter to “carry” the vocal input signal. See “super wide- bandwidth operation,” left.
Class-leading cosmetics.
You can tell a Hybrid Audio Technologies design because it looks nothing like other speakers on the market. All of our designs are fresh, and not “rebadged” derivatives of other, existing speaker designs.
Significantly undervalued products that out-perform competitors’ products.
All Hybrid Audio Technologies designs are priced significantly undervalued for the performance you get, and no other competing brand outperforms a Hybrid Audio Technologies product in their respective price ranges.

Legatia SE systems are the benchmark speakers systems from Hybrid Audio Technologies and is the enduring brand of choice for critical audiophiles, world championship car audio competitors, or for those that require the very best in audio loudspeakers.

The world’s finest car audio speaker systems, at any price, are the Legatia Special Edition (SE) Series drivers.

Built upon the widely-acclaimed Legatia Series, the Legatia Special Edition Series is a collection of seriously-enhanced drivers for the pinnacle of sound reproduction, and the yardstick by which other brands are compared.
Legatia SE products are sold in a la carte speaker pairs or as component sets, allowing the end-user to design a custom system of Legatia SE products, or a combination of Legatia SE products and other Hybrid Audio Technologies product offerings.
The SE series midranges and midbass utilize the same exact mounting topology as the Legatia products for immediate ‘drop-in’ upgrade potential.
The Legatia SE systems are the benchmark speakers systems from Hybrid Audio Technologies. Legatia SE is the enduring brand of choice for critical audiophiles, world championship car audio competitors, or for those that require the very best in audio loudspeakers.
Grilles are available for Legatia SE midrange / midbass drivers from the Legatia series.
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Legatia SE-Series Installation & Reference Manual

Covers in-depth speaker design attributes, driver specifications, mechanical drawings, frequency response graphs, advanced installation techniques, and warranty information.

Follow this link or press the cover photo to view the Legatia SE-series Reference Manual.

Follow this link to view the Legatia SE Carbon-series Reference Manual.

Guaranteed Value


For as long as you own your Hybrid Audio Technologies products, you are offered an exclusive “trade-up” program with guaranteed value.

Questions? Contact Us

Whether it's regarding a vehicle application, tuning, or product questions, we'll do our best to support you with a solution.

Unity series is a melding of the best features of the Imagine line with Clarus-level adaptations to make a budget-friendly and solution-based high-end alternative.

“Bright, crisp, detailed, sweet and enjoyable with awesome sonic cues and sound staging.” Earning the coveted 'Reference' Award

Talk Audio Magazine UK

“Bright, crisp, detailed, sweet and enjoyable with awesome sonic cues and sound staging.” Earning the coveted 'Reference' Award

Talk Audio Magazine UK

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Unity-Series Installation & Reference Manual

Covers in-depth speaker design attributes, driver specifications, mechanical drawings, frequency response graphs, basic & advanced installation techniques, and warranty information.

Follow this link or press the cover photo to view the Unity-series Reference Manual.

Market-Leading Warranty


Hybrid Audio Technologies extends a limited one year warranty to the original purchaser when self-installed, and three years warranty when installed by an authorized Hybrid Audio Technologies dealer (United States only).

Imagine is Hybrid Audio Technologies’ best-selling product and is a favorite amongst specialty retailers and consumers because of its price to performance ratio. Imagine systems easily out-perform competitor’s speaker systems costing twice to three times the price. Imagine is designed for the discerning individual, interested in more than just an ‘OEM replacement speaker.’

“One of the top bargain speakers available.”

Car Audio & Electronics Magazine

Imagine is Hybrid Audio Technologies’ best-selling product and is a favorite amongst specialty retailers and consumers because of its price to performance ratio. Imagine systems easily out-perform competitor’s speaker systems costing twice to three times the price. Imagine is designed for the discerning individual, interested in more than just an ‘OEM replacement speaker.’
The efficacy of the Imagine series is due in large part to the incorporation of several design tenets from the Clarus series. The Imagine series offers incomparable performance in its price range, boasting exhibiting exceptional power handling and midbass authority, with an accurate tonal character and spectral balance any music lover will appreciate.
“One of the top bargain speakers available.”

Car Audio & Electronics Magazine

Passive Kits

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Imagine offers flexible mounting options to compliment its amazing performance. The 5.25”, 6.5”, and 6x9” sets can be used as a coaxial or separates set, and the I57-2 5x7” coaxial set is designed as a direct fit for Harley-Davidson®.
Convertible Imagine sets include grilles and component set conversion items, including midbass phase plugs, tweeter cups and hardware, connection wire, and an extra set of magnet decals, for the ultimate coaxial or component set flexibility.

Subwoofers

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Imagine subwoofers are the ideal multi-purpose sound quality subwoofer speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical parameters are amenable to a variety of vented and sealed enclosures. At home in virtually any arrangement, the Imagine subwoofer boasts exceptional performance and a high-fidelity design philosophy.

Recommended Enclosure Volume

Model / Ft^3 Sealed / Ported @ Frequency

I6SW-V2 6.5-Inch / 0.3 / 0.35 @ 38 Hz
I8SW 8-Inch / 0.6 / 0.75 @ 38 Hz
I12SW-V2 12-Inch / 1.5 / 1.75 @ 28 Hz

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Imagine-Series Installation & Reference Manual

Covers in-depth speaker design attributes, driver specifications, mechanical drawings, frequency response graphs, basic & advanced installation techniques, and warranty information.

Follow this link or press the cover photo to view the Imagine-series Components Reference Manual.

Follow this link to view the Imagine-series Subwoofers Reference Manual.

Find a Dealer

Enter an address or zip code and click the find locations button.

Hybrid Audio Technologies highly encourages the purchase and installation of our products from authorized "brick and mortar" retailers. When our products are purchased and installed by one of our authorized dealers, you will receive a three-year limited warranty. If you buy our products from an authorized source, and they are not installed by one of our authorized dealers, you will receive a one-year limited warranty.
Our authorized Internet specialists, 12V Electronics, based in Illinois Audio Intensity, based in California
sell at Hybrid Audio Technologies' mandated retail pricing. If you find a Hybrid Audio Technologies product on the Internet from a source other than these, the buyer should consider the product as used or grey market and does not include any warranty or after purchase support from Hybrid Audio Technologies or its affiliates. We highly recommend buying Hybrid Audio Technologies from a reputable, AUTHORIZED source.
For further info or International inquiries, please Contact Us.

The Mirus line-up is comprised of dedicated coaxial kits for the cost-effective, high-performance market. The Mirus name is Latin for “astonishing.” Kits include a pair of coated steel frame two-way coaxials with water-proof paper cones proprietary to Hybrid Audio Technologies, high-energy ferrite magnets, 20mm soft-dome tweeters that swivel, integrated high-quality polypropylene tweeter crossover capacitors, encased in a full-color gift box. Grilles are optional and have universal application with Imagine, Unity, and Clarus.

The Mirus line-up is comprised of dedicated coaxial kits for the cost-effective, high-performance market. The Mirus name is Latin for “astonishing.” Kits include a pair of coated steel frame two-way coaxials with water-proof paper cones proprietary to Hybrid Audio Technologies, high-energy ferrite magnets, 20mm soft-dome tweeters that swivel, integrated high-quality polypropylene tweeter crossover capacitors, encased in a full-color gift box. Grilles are optional and have universal application with Imagine, Unity, and Clarus.

Mirus M69-2 Kits

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Available as a coaxial kit.

Grilles optional and have universal application with Imagine and Unity.

Mirus M57-2 Kits

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Available as a coaxial or separates kit.

Mirus M61-2 Kits

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Available as a coaxial kit or convertible coaxial/component version.

Grilles optional and have universal application with Imagine, Unity, and Clarus.

Mirus M51-2 Kits

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Available as a coaxial kit.

Grilles optional and have universal application with Imagine, Unity, and Clarus.

Mirus M41-2 Kits

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Available as a coaxial kit.

Mirus Specifications

M69-2

Diameter: 6x9-Inches
Frequency Response: 50 Hz - 20 kHz
Mounting Depth: 3.46-Inches
Power Handling: 75 watts
Suggested Crossover: 60 Hz

M57-2/C

Diameter: 5x7-Inches
Frequency Response: 55 Hz - 20 kHz
Mounting Depth: 2.64-Inches
Power Handling: 75 watts
Suggested Crossover: 65 Hz

M61-2/C

Diameter: 6.5-Inches / 165.5mm
Frequency Response: 55 Hz - 22 kHz
Mounting Depth: 2.48-Inches
Power Handling: 75 watts
Suggested Crossover: 65 Hz

M51-2

Diameter: 5.25-Inches / 150mm
Frequency Response: 60 Hz - 22 kHz
Mounting Depth: 2.24-Inches
Power Handling: 70 watts
Suggested Crossover: 70 Hz

M41-2

Diameter: 4-Inches / 117mm
Frequency Response: 90 Hz - 22 kHz
Mounting Depth: 2.07-Inches
Power Handling: 50 watts
Suggested Crossover: 100 Hz

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Mirus-Series Installation & Reference Manual

Covers in-depth speaker design attributes, driver specifications, mechanical drawings, frequency response graphs, basic installation techniques, and warranty information.

Follow this link or press the cover photo to view the Mirus-series Coaxial Reference Manual.

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